Harper’s Bazaar Cover Featuring Kate Moss, July 1993

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Cooper, A. (2014). Top 10 Vogue Covers of All Time; 9. Helmut Berger and Marisa Berenson, July 1970. Available: http://www.therichest.com/expensive-lifestyle/top-10-vogue-covers-of-all-time/2/. Last accessed 20 Nov 2014.

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

Fig. 14, Blake, M, (1993), Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993 [Accessed 23 March 15].

Fig. 15, Blake, M, (1993), Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993 [Accessed 23 March 15].

According to Madison Blake in her article “Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar” the supermodel featured on the cover of the magazine in July 1993, which can be seen in figure 13. The editorial was produced under editor Liz Tilberis and shot by Patrick Demarchelier, titled Body of Evidence. Kate Moss was still in the early stages of her career as a model at the age of 19 years old. During the 1990s there was a lot of controversy to do with the BMI (body mass index) of models. This cover caused further debate to do with anorexia versus a healthy slender body shape, but also over Moss’s unconcerned attitude towards her cocaine habit which she claimed didn’t affect her work. Kate Moss is clothed in a very simple beige jumper, perhaps intentionally bringing the viewers’ attention towards her skinny look. Her head is leaning slightly to the left, highlighting her collar and cheek bones. To her left we see that there is an article in this issue of Harper’s Bazaar titled ‘New Debate: Anorexic Versus Waif’, showing that this was a topic for discussion in this magazine. The issue also includes a photo shoot with Kate Moss which further highlights her angular body type, examples of which can be seen in fig. 14 and fig. 15. The photoshoot is done in black and white, perhaps to give it a serious tone, and features awkward poses that are designed to focus the viewer’s attention on the lanky body shape. It is an interesting image of the woman that appears from this cover. The woman has become more focused on how she appears on the outside rather than her own health. Throughout the 1990s, it has fashionable for models to have an androgynous look which was achieved through dieting extremes. During the 1990s, grunge was a recurring trend. The article ‘Fashion Trend: 1990s’ recounts how the movement developed from the underground in the 1980s as a response to capitalism and hard financial times. Fashion designers began to take notice of this emerging direction which in turn influenced the magazine industry. The cover in fig. 13 is a response to the grunge trend which is a reflection of society of the time. (Fashion Magazine, 2013) On this cover, however, Kate Moss appears frail, which is a step away from the powerful, independent woman seeking her own freedom which we saw often on covers from the 1920s right through to the 1970s, discussed in chapter 2. (Blake, 2014) 

Blake, M. (2014). Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993. Available: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993/. Last accessed 23 March 2015

Harper’s Bazaar Cover Designed by Brodovitch, July 1946

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Fig. 9, Dye, D, (1946), Harper’s Bazaar Cover, July 1946 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/112308584431577225/ [Accessed 17 March 15].

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

In Figure 9 we can see one of the experimental cover designs created under the art direction of Alexey Brodovitch. It is the cover of Harper’s Bazaar from July 1946. According to Kerry Williams Purcell, Brodovitch was a designer, photographer and teacher who worked as an art director for Harper’s Bazaar magazine for 15 years between the 1940s and the 1960s. (Purcell. 2014) He contributed to much of the content in the magazine bringing together graceful typographic layouts with experimental design trends in photography. His style became widely popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Purcell talks about how he was one of the leading designers in America to bring ideas from modernism into his work as can be seen in fig. 9. (Purcell, 2014) (Gallagher, 2007)

On the cover of the magazine in fig. 9 we simply see a hand reaching out for two butterflies. This is moving away from the tradition of featuring an image of a woman, illustrated or photographed, on the front of the magazine to a new era of experimental cover design. The cover nevertheless suggests an interesting concept of the woman. The year is 1946 and World War II ended the previous year. According to Universe of Symbolism the butterfly symbolises transcendence and the journey to freedom, as a butterfly needs to leave everything it knows as a caterpillar behind in order to become itself. (Universe of Symbolism, 2015) The Library of Congress writes in their article ‘The Post War United States, 1945-1968’ about how almost every aspect of life changed for the people of America during the Second World War. Post World War II, the American economy prospered, but not everyone reaped the benefits equally. American women, along with Hispanic and African Americans, became more aggressive in pursuing their right to full freedoms and equal civil rights as the Declaration of Independence and US Constitution guaranteed. It is unclear however whether the cover in fig. 9 is suggesting a woman reaching out for freedom or if we are seeing freedom slip away from her. This is probably an intentionally ambiguous statement as no one can be sure of what will happen in the future. Furthermore, women from different backgrounds and class in society would have gained different amounts of freedom. (Library of Congress, 2012)  (Gallagher, 2007)

Gallagher, J. G.. (2007). Alexey Brodovitch: 1934-1958. Available: http://www.harpersbazaar.com/culture/features/a94/bazaar-140-0607/. Last accessed 19 March 2015.

Library of Congress. (2012). The Postwar United States, 1945-1968. Available: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/postwar/. Last accessed 17 March 2015

Purcell, K.W. (2011). Alexey Brodovitch. Available: http://www.iconofgraphics.com/alexey-brodovitch/. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.

Purcell, K.W. (2011). Alexey Brodovitch. America: Phaidon Press. 272.

Harper’s Bazaar Cover featuring Lauren Bacall, March 1943

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Fig. 8, Michelle Phan, (1943), http://michellephan.com/5-favorites-iconic-vintage-magazine-covers/ [ONLINE]. Available at: http://michellephan.com/5-favorites-iconic-vintage-magazine-covers/ [Accessed 16 March 15].

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

According to Michelle Phans article ‘5 Favorites: Iconic Vintage Magazine Covers’, the Harper’s Bazaar cover in figure 8 of 18-year-old Lauren Bacall from March 1943 makes the list. The film noir style of the photograph is interesting considering that Bacall became a successful actress in Hollywood known for her deep, husky voice that she was trained to do. Shot by famed Harper’s Bazaar photographer Louise Dahl-Wolfe, one of the few female photographers of the time, this cover shows a young woman outside the door of the American Red Cross Blood Donation clinic. The lady looks to be either leaving the Red Cross blood donor room or waiting to go inside. She is chicly dressed in an elegant navy suit, white blouse, gloves, a cloche hat with long waves in her hair holding a red bag and matching lipstick. (Phans, 2014) According to David Thompson it was Diana Vreeland, who worked for both Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue, who discovered Lauren Bacall and placed her on the cover of Harper’s Bazaar. (Thompson, 2009)

In the article ‘Revisiting Lauren Bacall in Bazaar’, Patalay talks about how the cover was taken in 1943, just over seventy years ago, and focuses its attention on World War II, when life in America was tough with a tight economy, rationing and loved ones fighting for their country. (National WWII Museum) The expression on Bacall’s face is nonchalant with a suggestion that she attends the blood donation clinic on a regular basis. Patalay also notes the sombre patriotism of the front line. (Patalay, 2014) The cover was published at the height of World War II, when women had been left at home after their male counterparts were sent abroad to fight. With an uncertainty in the air of the time, the cover of this Harper’s Bazaar magazine shows an image of the woman who is determined to do her part to contribute even though she may be apprehensive about the future. (Patalay, 2014) The cover in fig. 8 has a strong message. Women are doing whatever they can to help the soldiers who are fighting in the war. The image of the woman in this cover shows the power that women have gained in society. She is no longer the delicate creature surrounded by flowers as seen in previous covers, but a responsible individual with the ability to do her bit to help if she chooses. This cover is holding a mirror up to the reader. They are relating to women who have entered the workforce for the first time and the women who became wartime brides when they married their soldier. These women were left to keep everything running at home with just an occasional letter from a loved one to lament over. (Patalay, 2014)

Patalay, A. (2014). Revisiting Lauren Bacall in Bazaar. Available: http://www.harpersbazaar.co.uk/culture-news/news/revisiting-lauren-bacall-in-bazaar. Last accessed 17 March 2015

Thompson, D. (2009). “Lauren Bacall: The Souring of a Hollywood Legend. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/lauren-bacall-the-souring-of-a-hollywood-legend-6161923.html. Last accessed 16 March 2015.

Harper’s Bazaar March 1919

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Fig. 4, Maria Belen, (1919), Harper’s Bazaar Cover [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/546131892284781290/ [Accessed 04 March 15].

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

According to Marnie Fogg in her book Fashion: The Whole Story, Erte was a designer and illustrator commissioned by Harper’s Bazaar from the 1910’s up until 1938. His first cover of Harper’s Bazaar was published in 1915. Figure 4 shows his cover the Seven Seas published in March 1919. A statuesque woman is standing to the left of the cover clothed in a highly detailed dress, shawl and hat. A bird is flying away from her arm to join the flight of other birds. The day is just breaking. (Fogg, 2013)

Erte was known for creating female archetypes such as the Assyrian princess, Egyptian queen, ingénue and siren. The woman in fig. 4 is clearly following Ertes’ earlier work. She is presented in a powerful pose, appearing to be wealthy based on the material and intricate nature of her clothing. There is a futuristic theme to the illustration evident in the various elements of the dress. Underneath the draping of the gown, a workman-like bodice is attached to the hat designed in the style of a flying helmet. The illustrated birds on the cover seek to reinforce the futuristic theme of the cover. Erte uses the birds to represent aeroplanes, which he described as ‘great instruments of progress’. The illustrator wanted this illustration to portray that women are ‘facing the sunrise of a new world era’. (Fogg, 2013)

Unlike the cover of Vogue in fig. 3, which shows an image of a pretty and delicate woman, the image of the woman in fig. 4 is very different. The Harper’s Bazaar cover is telling us that times are changing for women. World War 1 has just ended the year before the publication of this cover. (EyeWitness, 2013) This cover is implying that women are about to gain more power. This is interesting considering that a year later women gained the power to vote in America, gaining more political freedom, social welfare benefits, career opportunities as well as more status next to men, among other things. (Lee, 2001)

Fogg, M (2013). Fashion: The Whole Story. London: Thames and Hudson. 111.

Lee, M (2001). What Effect Did Women’s Suffrage Have on the Politics of the 1920’s?. Available: http://classroom.synonym.com/effect-did-womens– suffrage-politics-1920s-10875.html. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.

 

First Cover of Harper’s Bazaar Magazine

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Fig. 1, Carla Rioux, (2014), Magazine First Cover Harper’s Bazaar – 1867 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/8936899233948158/ [Accessed 25 February 15].

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

According to its website, Harper’s Bazaar is the oldest, continuously published fashion magazine in the world. (Bazaar, 2006) First published in 1867, it celebrated its 140th birthday in 2007. It was initially set up by Mary Louise Booth as an illustrated journal which was produced weekly and talked about fashion, gardening, the world of art, polite etiquette and other domestic wonders, with the first ever issue being dedicated to fashion and literature. Booth sought to publish a journal that was to act as ‘a repository of fashion, pleasure and instruction’ as the Harper’s Bazaar tagline read. Ali Basye wrote in his article ‘The Stories Behind the Styles’ about how Harper’s Bazaar arrived on the newspaper stands quietly without fuss and was sent out in the mailboxes of select ladies of society. In those early years, the magazine featured many different styles of the logo with a slightly shorter spelling of the name; Harper’s Bazaar. In the first few decades of its existence, the journal wrote about everything from avant-garde fashions to running a country home, where to get the best gowns, the social season and how to behave, and the art of facial expressions. As a magazine targeting women and writing about popular cultures of the time, it offers insight into the values and the role of women of that time. (Bazaar, 2006) (Basye, 2010)

In figure 1 (fig.1), we see the first cover produced by the magazine, Harper’s Bazaar, published on Saturday, 2nd November, 1867 in New York. It was printed with black ink on white paper, as printing technologies at that time did not yet allow for coloured printing. The cover is broken up into three sections; the top, where the logo is situated, the middle where a series of head decorations are shown, and the bottom of the cover, where two women are dressed in long flowing wedding dresses. The magazine is clearly targeting a female audience, with its illustration of bonnets and wedding dresses, as described on the cover. Furthermore, under the heavily decorated logo we see the Harper’s Bazaar tagline ‘a repository of fashion, pleasure and instruction’. This tag-line hints at what was considered to be entertaining for woman of this time; housekeeping and domestic tasks, gardening, sowing, being presented with good etiquette, looking well and social status.

According to a Cliff Notes article, ‘Changes in American Society’, the legal role of women in society in America in the 1860’s was largely the same as it had been in the colonial period. Women were still expected by society to stay at home and create a clean and nurturing environment, while men went out to work, brought in an income and dealt with the outside world. (Notes, 2014)

The women in the middle of the magazine cover are presented wearing various types of hats as part of the ‘Fall bonnets’ trend. The bonnets are decorated with lace, floral details and decorative bows. This magazine is clearly targeting middle and upper-class women who would have been the type of people who were able to afford magazines at the time since less well-off women of the 1860’s would not have the disposable income to spend on magazines. The two women towards the bottom of the cover are gracefully posed to show off their wedding dresses which have the long sleeves and high neckline fashionable at the time. According to the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Massachusetts, the practice of a white wedding dress would not become standard until the late 19th century. Overall we are given an image of a middle- to upper-class woman whose place in society is within her household. The image of the woman portrayed here has a sweet and elegant persona who enjoys leisurely pursuits such as gardening and household tasks, as well as being up-to-date on the latest fashions. (Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, 1999)

 

Basye, A. (2010). Hang Onto Your Pearls: The Little Black Dress is Born. Available: http://onthisdayinfashion.com/?p=6210. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Cliffs Notes, (2014). Changes in American Society . Available: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/more-subjects/history/us-history-i/economic-growth-and-development-18151860/changes-in-american-society. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.
Harper’s Bazaar Staff. (2006). The First 30 Years: 1867-97. Available: http://www.harpersbazaar.com/culture/features/a9517/bazaar-140-0107/. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.
Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Massachusetts. (1999). Wedding Dress. Available: http://www.memorialhall.mass.edu/collection/itempage.jsp?itemid=15807. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.