Harper’s Bazaar Cover Featuring Kate Moss, July 1993

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Cooper, A. (2014). Top 10 Vogue Covers of All Time; 9. Helmut Berger and Marisa Berenson, July 1970. Available: http://www.therichest.com/expensive-lifestyle/top-10-vogue-covers-of-all-time/2/. Last accessed 20 Nov 2014.

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

Fig. 14, Blake, M, (1993), Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993 [Accessed 23 March 15].

Fig. 15, Blake, M, (1993), Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993 [Accessed 23 March 15].

According to Madison Blake in her article “Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar” the supermodel featured on the cover of the magazine in July 1993, which can be seen in figure 13. The editorial was produced under editor Liz Tilberis and shot by Patrick Demarchelier, titled Body of Evidence. Kate Moss was still in the early stages of her career as a model at the age of 19 years old. During the 1990s there was a lot of controversy to do with the BMI (body mass index) of models. This cover caused further debate to do with anorexia versus a healthy slender body shape, but also over Moss’s unconcerned attitude towards her cocaine habit which she claimed didn’t affect her work. Kate Moss is clothed in a very simple beige jumper, perhaps intentionally bringing the viewers’ attention towards her skinny look. Her head is leaning slightly to the left, highlighting her collar and cheek bones. To her left we see that there is an article in this issue of Harper’s Bazaar titled ‘New Debate: Anorexic Versus Waif’, showing that this was a topic for discussion in this magazine. The issue also includes a photo shoot with Kate Moss which further highlights her angular body type, examples of which can be seen in fig. 14 and fig. 15. The photoshoot is done in black and white, perhaps to give it a serious tone, and features awkward poses that are designed to focus the viewer’s attention on the lanky body shape. It is an interesting image of the woman that appears from this cover. The woman has become more focused on how she appears on the outside rather than her own health. Throughout the 1990s, it has fashionable for models to have an androgynous look which was achieved through dieting extremes. During the 1990s, grunge was a recurring trend. The article ‘Fashion Trend: 1990s’ recounts how the movement developed from the underground in the 1980s as a response to capitalism and hard financial times. Fashion designers began to take notice of this emerging direction which in turn influenced the magazine industry. The cover in fig. 13 is a response to the grunge trend which is a reflection of society of the time. (Fashion Magazine, 2013) On this cover, however, Kate Moss appears frail, which is a step away from the powerful, independent woman seeking her own freedom which we saw often on covers from the 1920s right through to the 1970s, discussed in chapter 2. (Blake, 2014) 

Blake, M. (2014). Throwback Thursday: Kate Moss in Harper’s Bazaar, July 1993. Available: https://pointytoeshoecrew.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/throwback-thursday-kate-moss-in-harpers-bazaar-july-1993/. Last accessed 23 March 2015

Harper’s Bazaar, May 1961

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Fig 11. (1961) ‘The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue’, 2014, http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/vogue-magazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0 [accessed 29 March 2015]

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

According to Oloizia we see a different style of magazine cover in figure 11. (Oloizia, 2014) Released in May 1961, parts of Sophia Loren’s face is scattered over the cover, suggesting that the public would be able to recognize her by her lips and eyes alone. This cover is similar to fig. 10 in its abstract, modernist influence. This is another major Vogue cover as it features one of the first ever celebrities to grace the cover of Vogue. This is a major milestone as it paves the way for magazines as we know them today. Furthermore it is an evolution of the Vogue cover in fig. 6 where Toto Koopman appears as the first ever cover girl. The image of the woman here stays far away from floral motifs and expensive clothing, where women spend their days following leisurely pursuits. This cover is bold and adventurous, and we assume that the woman, Sophia Loren, also embodies these personality traits since all we have to do is look at her lips or eyes separately in order to be able to identify this famous celebrity. Again, Vogue is appealing to the fact that most people yearn for more than what they have in their lives. The cover in fig. 11 shows the bold and adventurous life of a celebrity, not the common public who purchase the Vogue magazine. Their readers are still given the opportunity to dream about a different life; the fun and crazy, adventurous life of a celebrity where an individual can be recognised by her eyes and lips alone. (Oloizia, 2014)

Oloizia, J. (2014). The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue. Available: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/voguemagazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.

Toto Koopman on Vogue, September 1933

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Fig 6. (1933), The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue, (2014) Available at: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/vogue-magazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0 [accessed 11 Nov 2014]

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

When thinking of Vogue today, we might think of the shiny gloss covers showing perfected images of celebrities. It was in September 1933 that Vogue had its first known cover girl on the front of its magazine, which can be seen in figure 6. The model named Toto Koopman was bisexual and biracial. Her sexuality, however, was not known at the time of publication and so had no impact on society at the time of the covers release and doesn’t say anything about the image of the woman. Nowadays, the placing of models and celebrities on the front covers of magazines is routine for the magazine industry. Koopman is wonderfully posed with the red and black colour motif creating a romantic atmosphere. The 1930s has become known as the golden age for Hollywood images of desirability and sexual attractiveness. The cover in figure 6 is influenced by this trend which, according to Fogg (2013), occurred in America during the Depression when people wanted ways to escape their dreary lives through cinematography. Fashion photographs in Vogue and other fashion magazine began to look like film stills, with fantasy props and complex lighting. The magazine industry opened up the Hollywood look to a wide audience. The US ready-made clothes industry started producing mass amounts of the clothing’s shown. (Fogg, 2013)

This lady appears to lead a comfortable life, which is a recurring image of the woman on the covers examined. She is very well dressed in expensive clothing. In the image Koopman appears glamorous and proud. Women sought to read Vogue as a way to escape the hard times that American society was going through in the 1930’s with the Depression. The image of this woman on the front cover would lead the ordinary woman to day-dream about an alternative lifestyle, which is what Vogue wanted its readers to do. On this cover we are given a misleading impression of women at this time. People in America were having a tough time and needed liberation from the reality of their lives through magazines such as the one in figure 6.  (Oloizia, 2014)

Fogg, M (2013). Fashion: The Whole Story. London: Thames and Hudson. 111.

Oloizia, J. (2014). The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue. Available: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/vogue-magazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.

Vogue Cover March 1912

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Fig. 3 (1912) US Vogue Cover Archive. [online] Available at http://forums.thefashionspot.com/f78/us-vogue-cover-archive-56486.htmlhttp://forums.thefashionspot.com/f78/us-vogue-cover-archive-56486.html [accessed 11 Nov 2014]

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue,between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

The image in figure 3 is typical of a Vogue cover of the 1910’s – 1920’s. At this time the magazines were exclusively illustrated rather than photographed, with covers differing in illustration styles. The woman in fig. 3 is draped in an elegant outer cloak with rich colours and fur. Flowers accompanying a woman are common imagery on magazine covers around this time and can be seen in fig. 3. Women and flowers were often juxtaposed to each other due to the thinking of the time that women were supposed to be like flowers; delicate and pretty. The furnishings around the woman appear expensive. The lady is seated on a coach leisurely reading an issue of Vogue. Overall we get the impression of a woman who enjoys the finer things in life; fur, beautiful clothing, expensive furnishing and, of course, Vogue. Vogue is giving an impression of their consumers. Women who read Vogue live privileged lives of luxury. Even the many who were unable to afford this type of lifestyle of luxury can, through this image, fantasize about this dream lifestyle. They may not be able to afford the beautiful furnishings and clothing adorned on the cover, but they can afford Vogue!

Vogue. (2014). From the Archives: Vogue Looks Back at 120 Years of Covers. Available: http://www.vogue.com/869450/from-the-archives-vogue-looks-back-at-120-years-of-covers/. Last accessed 20 Nov 2014.

Vogue. (2014). Vogue Archive. Available: http://www.vogue.com/archive. Last accessed 20 Nov 2014.

First Cover of Vogue, 1892

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Fig. 2 (1892) The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue [ONLINE] Available at: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/vogue-magazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0 [accessed 10 Nov 2014]

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

Jeff Oloizia, in ‘The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue’, explains the changes that have taken place on the covers of Vogue over the more than 120 years that the magazine has been in publication in America. It features an image of the first cover from 1892, which can be seen in figure 2 (Oloizia, 2014). Like figure 1, the cover is far from what we would expect of a magazine cover nowadays. There are no air brushed models on the front cover. There are no bright colours, no eye-catching type or no glossy finish to the cover. The woman in the center is dressed in a long dress covering her arms, but quite low over the chest region. She seems to be picking flowers in a garden. She is posed in such a way that she is looking out towards the viewer with a closed mouth smile. The two women towards the top of the cover on either side of the title are leisurely relaxing; one is looking at herself in a mirror and the other reading what looks like a newspaper. The imagery is very classical in the poses.

The image of the woman that appears from this cover suggests that women were quite happy to spend their days relaxing in an idealized world of flowers and beauty which is similar to the image that is portrayed in the first image, in fig. 1, of the first cover of Harper’s Bazaar. These women appear idealized. The woman in the center is fashionably dressed for the time, but the other two look like they are from a classical muse. According to Appell in her article ‘The Influence of Society’s Ideals on Victorian Relationships’, women at this time were expected to stay at home taking care of their husbands and children. They were rarely educated and it was unusual for a woman to seek employment unless they were forced to do so by poverty. The publisher Arthur Baldwin Turnure says that the aim of the cover was to attract ‘the sage as well as the debutante, men of affairs as well as the belle’. (Appell, 2006) This is different to the aim of women as a target market, which Vogue is now known for. The image of the woman here is a man’s classicised impression of how a woman of that period spends her time. This idealized world of the woman would be an unusual lifestyle at that time but was a common feature on the covers of Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar at this time.  (Appell, 2006) (Oloizia, 2014)

Appell, F. Victorian Ideals: The Influence of Society’s Ideals on Victorian Relationships. (2006) Available: http://www.mckendree.edu/academics/scholars/issue18/appell.htm. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.

Oloizia, J. (2014). The 10 Most Groundbreaking Covers in the History of Vogue. Available: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/vogue-magazine-list-10-most-groundbreaking-covers-in-the-history-of-vogue/?_r=0. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.

First Cover of Harper’s Bazaar Magazine

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Fig. 1, Carla Rioux, (2014), Magazine First Cover Harper’s Bazaar – 1867 [ONLINE]. Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/8936899233948158/ [Accessed 25 February 15].

Extract from a thesis written by Sofia Arvanius for her final year studying for a BA in Visual Communication titled How has the image of women changed over time in the fashion magazine industry in America, looking specifically at the covers of the US magazine, Vogue, between the years of its first publication in 1892 until the present day?

According to its website, Harper’s Bazaar is the oldest, continuously published fashion magazine in the world. (Bazaar, 2006) First published in 1867, it celebrated its 140th birthday in 2007. It was initially set up by Mary Louise Booth as an illustrated journal which was produced weekly and talked about fashion, gardening, the world of art, polite etiquette and other domestic wonders, with the first ever issue being dedicated to fashion and literature. Booth sought to publish a journal that was to act as ‘a repository of fashion, pleasure and instruction’ as the Harper’s Bazaar tagline read. Ali Basye wrote in his article ‘The Stories Behind the Styles’ about how Harper’s Bazaar arrived on the newspaper stands quietly without fuss and was sent out in the mailboxes of select ladies of society. In those early years, the magazine featured many different styles of the logo with a slightly shorter spelling of the name; Harper’s Bazaar. In the first few decades of its existence, the journal wrote about everything from avant-garde fashions to running a country home, where to get the best gowns, the social season and how to behave, and the art of facial expressions. As a magazine targeting women and writing about popular cultures of the time, it offers insight into the values and the role of women of that time. (Bazaar, 2006) (Basye, 2010)

In figure 1 (fig.1), we see the first cover produced by the magazine, Harper’s Bazaar, published on Saturday, 2nd November, 1867 in New York. It was printed with black ink on white paper, as printing technologies at that time did not yet allow for coloured printing. The cover is broken up into three sections; the top, where the logo is situated, the middle where a series of head decorations are shown, and the bottom of the cover, where two women are dressed in long flowing wedding dresses. The magazine is clearly targeting a female audience, with its illustration of bonnets and wedding dresses, as described on the cover. Furthermore, under the heavily decorated logo we see the Harper’s Bazaar tagline ‘a repository of fashion, pleasure and instruction’. This tag-line hints at what was considered to be entertaining for woman of this time; housekeeping and domestic tasks, gardening, sowing, being presented with good etiquette, looking well and social status.

According to a Cliff Notes article, ‘Changes in American Society’, the legal role of women in society in America in the 1860’s was largely the same as it had been in the colonial period. Women were still expected by society to stay at home and create a clean and nurturing environment, while men went out to work, brought in an income and dealt with the outside world. (Notes, 2014)

The women in the middle of the magazine cover are presented wearing various types of hats as part of the ‘Fall bonnets’ trend. The bonnets are decorated with lace, floral details and decorative bows. This magazine is clearly targeting middle and upper-class women who would have been the type of people who were able to afford magazines at the time since less well-off women of the 1860’s would not have the disposable income to spend on magazines. The two women towards the bottom of the cover are gracefully posed to show off their wedding dresses which have the long sleeves and high neckline fashionable at the time. According to the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Massachusetts, the practice of a white wedding dress would not become standard until the late 19th century. Overall we are given an image of a middle- to upper-class woman whose place in society is within her household. The image of the woman portrayed here has a sweet and elegant persona who enjoys leisurely pursuits such as gardening and household tasks, as well as being up-to-date on the latest fashions. (Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, 1999)

 

Basye, A. (2010). Hang Onto Your Pearls: The Little Black Dress is Born. Available: http://onthisdayinfashion.com/?p=6210. Last accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Cliffs Notes, (2014). Changes in American Society . Available: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/more-subjects/history/us-history-i/economic-growth-and-development-18151860/changes-in-american-society. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.
Harper’s Bazaar Staff. (2006). The First 30 Years: 1867-97. Available: http://www.harpersbazaar.com/culture/features/a9517/bazaar-140-0107/. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.
Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Massachusetts. (1999). Wedding Dress. Available: http://www.memorialhall.mass.edu/collection/itempage.jsp?itemid=15807. Last accessed 25 Feb 2015.